This is a guest post by Tom Wolf of Agrimetrix Research and Training.
Image courtesy of Korey Peters.
A fast and efficient harvest is one of our enduring dreams. Few things are worse than downtime when harvesting weather is good, and the forecast is bad. For this reason, one of the smartest decisions a grower could make is to consider a late-season harvest-aid application. With the cool, dry start to the season, many fields have crops at a number of stages, and with thinner stands, weeds have sometimes maintained a foothold. With some late season moisture, new life is given to the late emergers. They’ll still be going strong when the crop is ready to cut. This could mean all sorts of cutterbar, pickup reel, feeder chain, and sieve headaches.
A desiccant or pre-harvest herbicide application can help avoid those problems. The challenge is to get the spray into, or through, a mature crop canopy. Here are some pointers to do it right.
Evaluate where the spray needs to go to do its job. If you’re considering a pre-harvest herbicide, are you looking to control dandelions or buckwheat near the bottom of the canopy, or are you trying to get thistles or quackgrass near the top? If you’re mostly trying to accelerate drydown with a contact product, where in the canopy are the green stems and leaves that you need to contact?
Take a bird’s eye view of your canopy. That’s how the spray sees it. If you can clearly see your target, the spray application is pretty straightforward because most droplets will make their way there easily. But if the target is obscured by a lot of foliage, or if it’s vertical, the job is much more challenging and will require some combination of more water, slower speeds, and finer sprays.
Plan ahead and make sure you give yourself enough time, because to do the job right you’ll be using more water and driving a bit slower. Focus on productivity tools like a fast, efficient fill to make up the lost time.
Reglone is a product that should ideally be applied in the evening, allowing it to be taken up and slightly translocated within the leaf before morning sunlight activates it and prevents any further movement. If you’re not careful, the tighter window of evening-only applications could get you behind. And of course, be aware of the signs of inversions and know when to quit.
Test your water and make sure your water doesn’t have turbidity (suspended clay or other organic matter), for glyphosate and Reglone, and hardness, for glyphosate. Aluminum Sulphate can help get rid of turbidity, but it takes time. Ammonium sulphate (AMS) and other water conditioners can remove antagonizing hard water ions like magnesium and calcium. This is especially important as we increase water volumes with glyphosate to get better coverage. The higher water volumes give a concentration advantage to the hardness minerals.
To get more spray deeper into the canopy, slow down, add water, and point nozzles backward. The backward orientation helps offset the forward travel speed, giving the droplets a slower net velocity that facilitates their downward movement.
To hit plant parts that you can’t see, one of the main tools is finer sprays. The smaller droplets have an easier time changing direction to get around obstacles like leaves, and they are also much more likely to be intercepted by petioles and stems, and to stick to them. This can be both an advantage and disadvantage – for example, the awns in bearded cereals are notoriously effective at capturing the smallest droplets before they can do any good further down. If you don’t want to use a different nozzle to get a finer spray, simply increase the spray pressure of your low-drift nozzle to 80, 90, even 100 psi. This will create enough fine droplets. But don’t think that the higher pressure pushes the spray into the canopy. Only air-assist can do that.
If you’re using contact products like Heat (Eragon in the east), or tank-mixing these products with glyphosate, similar guidelines as with Reglone should be followed. Generous amounts of water, and slightly finer sprays than glyphosate alone, will maximize its performance. Make sure that spray drift control remains a priority.
A good job with a pre-harvest herbicide or a harvest-aid can save many swathing and combining headaches, and can help dry down during less than ideal conditions. It’s another reason why the sprayer may be the most important implement on the farm.